Eye Diseases

Eye Diseases Solutions

The most frequent eye diseases are:

Les cataractes

Cataracts which is the clouding of a “window” inside the eye. It usually evolves slowly except for certain types. When the cataracts harm the vision, the decision to proceed to the operation is decided by the patient, except if the surgery needs to be done early to avoid post-surgery complications. The Clinique des Yeux de Laval will take care of the ophthalmology referral and the post-surgery follow-up care. 

After the surgery, it is necessary to apply antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drops to help the healing of the eye. These drops need to be applied every day for approximately a month. The optometrist will verify the healing of the eye during this month and will readjust the medication dose if necessary.

Après l’opération, il est nécessaire de mettre des gouttes antibiotiques et anti-inflammatoires pour aider la guérison de l’œil. Ces gouttes doivent être mises à tous les jours pour environ un mois. L’optométriste vérifiera la guérison de l’œil au courant de ce mois et pourra réajuster les doses de médicaments au besoin.
Is it dangerous to not operate a cataract?

Apart from a very advanced cataract or a condition increasing the surgery risk with time (cornea guttata or pseudo-exfoliation), it is not dangerous for the health of the eyes to wait to do a cataract surgery. This being said, when the cataract progresses, the vision will slowly blurry to the point where it can be too blurred to drive a car. If this is the case, the patient either needs to do the cataract surgery or needs to stop driving the car. Another element to consider is that the waiting time for a cataract surgery is different depending on the establishment and the Quebec region. The delays are usually longer than a year, meaning that it is not recommended to wait until the point where the patient is not able to drive the car, before getting the surgery.


According to a 2016 study made in the United States, 2% of the 40 years old and older population was affected by glaucoma and half of it wasn’t aware that they had this condition[1]. Glaucoma is a sneaky condition who is often under the radar because the symptoms appear only in a more advance state. Only a complete eye examination can detect it.

Glaucoma is characterized by a degradation of the optic nerve, which is the cable linking the eyes to the brain. In the long term, it is possible to become completely blind when the disease has taken control. Factors increasing the risks to have this disease include the familial glaucoma history, being aged 40 years old and older, being of Black or Hispanic ethnicity, having an ocular hypertension (high pressure in the eyes), having hypertension or arterial hypertension, having sleep apnea, having migraines or vascular spasms (ex: Raynaud disease), being a smoker, etc.

To this day, we still don’t know all the mechanisms in the eye leading to glaucoma. However, we know that it is the pressure in the eyes which can impair the optic nerve (mechanical cause) and a poor blood supply of the optic nerve can make it degenerate (vascular cause). It is possible to slow down the progression of the disease with the help of drops that can be applied in the eyes every day for the rest of the life. Some surgeries are also available for more advanced cases or for those who don’t want drops.

For more information, see: https://www.passeportsante.net/fr/Maux/Problemes/Fiche.aspx?doc=glaucome_pm

[1]GUPTA, P et al. Prevalence of glaucoma in the United States : The 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 May 1;57(6):2905–2913.

Macular Degeneration

The macular degeneration is a disease which touches the center of the eye (the macular being the part of the retina which allows us to see details). The “dry » form develops slowly, by atrophy of the visual cells. It is treatable by prevention only. The “humid” form develops more rapidly following a hemorrhage inside the macula of the eye. It is usually treatable by intraocular injection. It needs to be done before the healing to avoid a permanent vision loss. The complete examination with the OCT scanner allows to differentiate the two forms and guide the prevention and treatments.